A Comparative Study of Three Modes of Ventilation During CPB in Pediatrics With Pulmonary Hypertension Undergoing Congenital Heart Surgeries

Study Purpose

Aim of Work: The aim of this randomized, double-blinded, study is to compare between three modes of ventilation during cardiopulmonary bypass in pediatric patients with pulmonary hypertension undergoing corrective cardiac surgeries. Hypothesis: The hypothesis of the present study is that high frequency low volume positive pressure ventilation is better than continous positive airway pressure (CPAP)and passive deflation on direct PAP (pulmonary artery pressure ) reading and immediate oxygenation after cardiopulmonary bypass CPB in pediatric patients undergoing cardiac surgeries for congenital heart defects.

Recruitment Criteria

Accepts Healthy Volunteers

Healthy volunteers are participants who do not have a disease or condition, or related conditions or symptoms

Study Type

An interventional clinical study is where participants are assigned to receive one or more interventions (or no intervention) so that researchers can evaluate the effects of the interventions on biomedical or health-related outcomes.

An observational clinical study is where participants identified as belonging to study groups are assessed for biomedical or health outcomes.

Searching Both is inclusive of interventional and observational studies.

Eligible Ages 4 Months - 6 Years
Gender All
More Inclusion & Exclusion Criteria

Inclusion Criteria:

  • - Age: 4 months to 6 years.
  • - ASA I, II, III.
  • - Patients undergoing atrial septal defect or ventricular septal defect or common atrio-ventricular canal corrective cardiac surgeries on cardiopulmonary bypass.
  • - Patients suffering moderate to severe pulmonary hypertension.

Exclusion Criteria:

  • - Any congenital anomalies of the lung as cystic fibrosis, congenial diaphragmatic hernia.
  • - ASA IV.
  • - Mild pulmonary hypertension or normal PAP.
  • - Patients who will require high doses of inotropes (adrenaline > 0.1 mcg/kg/min or milrinone > 1 mcg/kg/min) will be excluded from the study.

Trial Details

Trial ID:

This trial id was obtained from ClinicalTrials.gov, a service of the U.S. National Institutes of Health, providing information on publicly and privately supported clinical studies of human participants with locations in all 50 States and in 196 countries.


Phase 1: Studies that emphasize safety and how the drug is metabolized and excreted in humans.

Phase 2: Studies that gather preliminary data on effectiveness (whether the drug works in people who have a certain disease or condition) and additional safety data.

Phase 3: Studies that gather more information about safety and effectiveness by studying different populations and different dosages and by using the drug in combination with other drugs.

Phase 4: Studies occurring after FDA has approved a drug for marketing, efficacy, or optimal use.

Lead Sponsor

The sponsor is the organization or person who oversees the clinical study and is responsible for analyzing the study data.

Cairo University
Principal Investigator

The person who is responsible for the scientific and technical direction of the entire clinical study.

Salwa Hefnawy, profesor
Principal Investigator Affiliation Cairo unuversity
Agency Class

Category of organization(s) involved as sponsor (and collaborator) supporting the trial.

Overall Status Recruiting
Countries Egypt

The disease, disorder, syndrome, illness, or injury that is being studied.

Congenital Heart Disease, Pulmonary Hypertension
Additional Details

The patients will be randomized in a double blinded fashion to get enrolled into 3 equal groups: Group HFPPV patients (n = 8) will receive high frequency positive pressure ventilation during cardiopulmonary bypass at tidal volume 2 ml/kg and respiratory rate 80, whereas Group CPPV patients (n = 8 ) will receive continuous positive airway pressure of 10 cmH2O during the bypass, while Control group patients (n = 8 ) will be disconnected from the ventilation (passive deflation) .The study will be conducted in the pediatric cardio-thoracic operation rooms in AbulReesh Hospital in Cairo University. Advanced Monitoring where Naso-pharyngeal temperature probe will be placed, a Central venous catheter to monitor central venous pressure and an arterial cannula to monitor invasive blood pressure after that, standard cardiopulmonary bypass technique will be used in all patients. Before aortic cannulation, patients will receive IV heparin 400 U.kg-1 aiming to produce activated clotting time ACT value > 400 sec. A membrane oxygenator (minimax plus; Medtronics Inc.) will be used during cardiopulmonary bypass. Priming solution in the form of iso-tonic saline solution supplemented with heparin added to fresh whole blood in appropriate amounts to achieve a haematocrit 20-25% during CPB will be used. Furosemide in a dose of 1 mg/kg/min will be given to all patients. Venting of left heart will be performed with a left atrial vent inserted through a small incision at the inter-atrial septum. Anesthesia during CPB will be given by Sevoflurane administrated via a vaporizer inserted into the oxygenator gas supply with a constant gas flow 3 liter/min. A non-pulsatile roller pump (model10.10.00; Stocket instruments; Munich, Germany) will be used and the pump flow will be adjusted at 2.4 to 2.6 L/min /m2 during the normothermic period targeting mean arterial blood pressure between 40 and 60 mmHg. Moreover, all patients will receive milrinone loading dose of 50mcg/kg/min the maintanence 0.5-1 mcg/kg/min and or adrenaline 0.02-0.1 mcg/kg/min will be utilized to facilitate weaning from CPB. After sternotomy and direct exposure of the pulmonary artery, the pulmonary artery systolic pressure (PASP) will be monitored by a direct arterial catheter 22 gauge inserted by the surgeon into the pulmonary artery, was calculated and recorded immediately after sternotomy, after aortic clamp removal, and 10 minutes after initiation of protamine infusion). After application of aortic cross clamp and administration of cold blood cardioplegia solution (Saint Thomas cardioplegic solution) 40 ml/Kg to be followed by doses of 10ml/Kg every 30 minutes.), Group A patients will receive high frequency low volume positive pressure ventilation (HFPPV) during cardiopulmonary bypass at tidal volume Vt 2 ml/kg and respiratory rate RR 80, whereas Group B patients (n =8 ) will receive continous positive airway pressure CPAP of 10 cmH2O, and group C patients will be disconnected from the ventilator (passive deflation) . Finally, Lung Ultrasound Score will be obtained after induction of anesthesia and at the end of surgery after chest closure, The duration of mechanical ventilation, length of stay in the intensive care unit and immediate post bypass oxygenation as well as the requirement for inotropic and vaso-tropic support during the first 24 hours study period will be recorded for all patients. Lung ultrasound protocol: Lung ultrasound will be performed after induction of anesthesia and at the end of the operation with a 5-MHz curved array probe (MindrayDC-N6; Mindray; Shenzhen, China). Patients will be investigated in supine position by a well-trained physician recording five seconds videos that will be assessed by two different observers who will be blinded from the patient data. Lung ultrasound will be assessed for the presence of B lines.

Arms & Interventions


Experimental: HPPV

will receive high frequency positive pressure ventilation during cardiopulmonary bypass at tidal volume 2 ml/kg and respiratory rate 80. Lung ultrasound will be done at the beginning and end of surgery

Experimental: CPPV

will receive continuous positive airway pressure of 10 cmH2o during the bypass. Lung ultrasound will be done at the beginning and end of surgery

No Intervention: Control

will be disconnected from the ventilation (passive deflation). Lung ultrasound will be done at the beginning and end of surgery.Lung ultrasound will be done at the beginning and end of surgery


Diagnostic Test: - lung ultrasound

Lung ultrasound will be performed after induction of anesthesia and at the end of the operation with a 5-MHz curved array probe (MindrayDC-N6; Mindray; Shenzhen, China

Contact a Trial Team

If you are interested in learning more about this trial, find the trial site nearest to your location and contact the site coordinator via email or phone. We also strongly recommend that you consult with your healthcare provider about the trials that may interest you and refer to our terms of service below.

International Sites

Cairo University Pediatric Hospitals, Giza, الجيزة, Egypt




Cairo University Pediatric Hospitals

Giza, الجيزة, 12555

Site Contact

mostafa El berry



For more information, please contact PHA at Research@PHAssociation.org and refer to the terms of service below.

Submit Feedback

The content provided on clinical trials is for informational purposes only and is not a substitute for medical consultation with your healthcare provider. We do not recommend or endorse any specific study and you are advised to discuss the information shown with your healthcare provider. While we believe the information presented on this website to be accurate at the time of writing, we do not guarantee that its contents are correct, complete, or applicable to any particular individual situation. We strongly encourage individuals to seek out appropriate medical advice and treatment from their physicians. We cannot guarantee the availability of any clinical trial listed and will not be responsible if you are considered ineligible to participate in a given clinical trial. We are also not liable for any injury arising as a result of participation in a clinical trial or study.